Global Helium Market – RasGas, Exxon, Linde, Air Product, Praxair

Global Helium Market report 2017 is an in-depth research on the current situation of the Helium industry.

The Scope of the Helium research report: The Global Helium Market primarily includes a basic overview of the Helium industry. It also includes Helium definitions, classifications and applications. It segments the market by applications, types, regions, competitive players and also analyzes Helium market size, business share and Helium revenue, price and sales. The report mainly covers the Helium market in North America, the Helium market in Europe, the Helium market in Asia-Pacific, the Helium market in Latin America, Middle as well as Africa.

Global Helium Market Segment By Key Players/Manufacturers:
1 RasGas (QA)
2 Exxon (US)
3 Linde (US,AU)
4 Air Product (US)
5 Praxair (US)
6 Air Liquide (DZ)
7 Gazprom (RU)
8 PGNiG (PL)

Global Helium Market Segment By Type
– Gaseous
– Liquid

Global Helium Market Segment By Applications
– Croygenics
– Aerostatics
– Semicconductor & Fiber Optics
– Leak Detection & Gas Chromatography
– Welding
– Others

Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis cover up
– North America Helium Market (Canada, Mexico and USA).
– Latin America Helium Market (Middle and Africa).
– Helium Market in Europe (Germany, France, Italy, UK and Russia).
– Asia-Pacific Helium Market (South-east Asia, China, India, Korea, and Japan).

The report (Helium market) focuses on worldwide major leading Helium industry players, which further includes information like company profiles, Helium price, Company’s Helium market revenue etc. Growth prospects of the overall Helium industry have been presented in the report. However, to give a detailed view of the readers, detailed geographical segmentation within the globe Helium market has been covered in this study. The key regions along with their revenue forecasts are included in the report.

Report on (Helium Market Report) mainly covers 15 Topics acutely display the global Helium market.

Topic 1, to describe Helium market Introduction, Scope of the product, Helium market overview and market opportunities, Helium market risk, market driving force;

Topic 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and Helium market share by key countries in these regions;

Topic 7, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Helium, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;

Topic 8, analyzes the top manufacturers of Helium, with sales, revenue, and price of Helium, in 2016 and 2017;

Topic 9 and 10, shows the Helium market by type and application, Helium market share, with sales and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017;

Topic 11, Helium market forecast, by regions, application and type, with revenue and sales, from 2017 to 2022;

Topic 12, to display the competitive situation among the top leading manufacturers, with sales, revenue and Helium market share in 2016 and 2017;

Topic 13, 14 and 15, to describe Helium sales channel, distributors, dealers, traders, Conclusion and Research Findings, data source and appendix;

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New Report of United States Liquid Helium Market Share, Growth by Top Company, Region, Application, Driver, Trends & Forecasts by 2022

United States Liquid Helium Market Report provides an analytical assessment of the prime challenges faced by this Market currently and in the coming years, which helps Market participants in understanding the problems they may face while operating in this Market over a longer period of time. Various policies and news are also included in the United States Liquid Helium Market report. Various costs involved in the production of United States Liquid Helium are discussed further. This includes labour cost, depreciation cost, raw material cost and other costs. The production process is analysed with respect to various aspects like, manufacturing plant distribution, capacity, commercial production, R&D status, raw material source and technology source. This provides the basic information about the United States Liquid Helium industry. On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Liquid Helium for each application, including Artificial Air, Shielding Gas, Airship, Others. Further in the United States Liquid Helium Market research report, following points are included along with in-depth study of each point:

Production Analysis – Production of the United States Liquid Helium is analysed with respect to different regions, types and applications. Here, price analysis of various United States Liquid Helium Market key players is also covered.

Sales and Revenue Analysis – Both, sales and revenue are studied for the different regions of the global United States Liquid Helium Market. Another major aspect, price, which plays important part in the revenue generation is also assessed in this section for the various regions.

Supply and Consumption – In continuation with sales, this section studies supply and consumption for the United States Liquid Helium Market. This part also sheds light on the gap between supple and consumption. Import and export figures are also given in this part.

Competitors – In this section, various United States Liquid Helium industry leading players are studied with respect to their company profile, product portfolio, capacity, price, cost and revenue.

Other analyses – Apart from the aforementioned information, trade and distribution analysis for the United States Liquid Helium Market, contact information of major manufacturers, suppliers and key consumers is also given. Also, SWOT analysis for new projects and feasibility analysis for new investment are included.

The following firms are included in the United States Liquid Helium Market report:

  • RasGas (QA)
  • Exxon (US)
  • Linde (US, AU)
  • Air Product (US)
  • Praxair (US)
  • Air Liquide (DZ)
  • Gazprom (RU)….and Others

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IBM Seriously Just Turned an Atom Into the World’s Smallest Hard Drive

Data storage technology continues to shrink in size and grow in capacity, but scientists have just taken things to the next level – they’ve built a nanoscale hard drive using a single atom. By magnetising an atom, cooling it with liquid helium, and storing it in an extreme vacuum, the team managed to store a single bit of data (either a 1 or a 0) in this incredibly miniscule space. Not enough room for your holiday photos then, but according to the team from IBM Research in California, this proof-of-concept approach could eventually lead to drives the size of a credit card that could hold the entire iTunes or Spotify libraries, at about 30 million songs each. “We conducted this research to understand what happens when you shrink technology down to the most fundamental extreme – the atomic scale,” says one of the researchers, nanoscientist Christopher Lutz. The team deployed its Nobel Prize-winning Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) for the experiment, which uses the ‘tunnelling phenomenon’ in quantum mechanics, where electrons can be pushed through barriers, to study electronics at the atomic scale. With the extreme vacuum conditions inside the STM, free from air molecules and other types of contamination, scientists were able to successfully manipulate a holmium atom. The microscope also applies liquid helium cooling, which is important in adding stability to the magnetic reading and writing process. Thanks to that carefully controlled environment, the team could accurately read and write two magnetically charged atoms just a single nanometre apart – that’s one millionth the width of a pinhead. With the help of the microscope, the scientists could deliver an electric current that turns the magnetic orientation of a single atom up or down, mimicking the operation of a normal hard drive, but on a much smaller scale. Today’s hard drives use about 100,000 atoms to store a single bit, so you can get an idea of the difference we’re talking about. The team says the technique could produce drives that are 1,000 times denser than the ones we have right now. And while the process is going to remain much too difficult and expensive to use commercially for some time, the researchers have shown that it can be done, which is an exciting first step. This is just the latest in a long line of innovations in data storage – earlier this month researchers from Columbia University announced they’d crammed six digital files into a single speck of DNA. While there have been previous efforts to store data on single atoms, this is now the smallest and most stable result yet, according to the IBM team. “The high magnetic stability combined with electrical reading and writing shows that single-atom magnetic memory is indeed possible,” the researchers conclude. The study has been published in Nature.

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Meet The ‘Angulon’, A New Quasiparticle Found In Superfluid Helium

 

 

 

 

 

 

Molecule traps: angulons spotted in helium droplets

The quasiparticle concept allows physicists to describe complex, many-body interactions in terms of the behaviour of a single particle-like entity. Usually these particles turn up in condensed-matter systems such as semiconductors, but a new type of quasiparticle known as an angulon has been proposed to describe the rotation of an atomic or molecular impurity within a solvent. First proposed theoretically two years ago, angulons have now been shown to explain the curious behaviour of a range of different molecules rotating within liquid helium. Physicists have been studying quasiparticles since at least the 1940s, when Lev Landau and Solomon Pekar put forward the idea of the polaron to describe the behaviour of an electron travelling through a crystal lattice. As the electron moves forward it disturbs the surrounding atoms and so polarizes that region of the crystal. Describing the process completely would involve calculating the changing interaction between the electron and vast numbers of atoms, but Landau realized that it could be approximated by regarding the electron and the associated polarizations as a single particle that acts like a more massive electron travelling through free space. In the latest work, Mikhail Lemeshko of the Institute of Science and Technology Austria just outside Vienna has looked at the collective motion of a rotating molecule interacting with the many atoms inside a drop of superfluid helium. Such drops allow scientists to hold single molecules at a fraction of a degree above absolute zero and record their spectra without distortions. In particular, it is useful for studying very reactive molecules such as free radicals.

Not enough atoms

The system can be analysed semi-classically by assuming that the trapped molecule creates a shell of non-superfluid helium around itself as it rotates, so slowing it down. But superfluid helium is a fundamentally quantum-mechanical material that is described by Bose–Einstein, as opposed to classical Boltzmann, statistics. Physicists have carried out brute-force numerical simulations of the system in recent years, but the complexity of the many-body interactions has limited the number of helium atoms in those simulations to around 100. The droplets used in experiments, in contrast, tend to contain more than 1000 atoms. Lemeshko has found that he can simplify the problem enormously by using the concept of the angulon. Just as a polaron consists of an electron plus the deformations in the surrounding lattice, so an angulon is made up of the rotating molecule plus the disturbances it creates in the surrounding helium. And whereas a polaron is in effect a free-moving but more massive version of the electron, an angulon acts like an un-trapped version of the molecule in question but with a larger moment of inertia.
Having put forward the theory of angulons with Richard Schmidt of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in the US in 2015, Lemeshko has now compared that theory against 20 years of experimental results. For each of 25 different molecules, Lemeshko calculates the effect of the surrounding helium atoms on the molecule’s rotational constant – which is inversely proportional to its moment of inertia – and then compares the modified constant to the value obtained experimentally.

Two regimes

This was not a straightforward one-size-fits-all comparison, however. To obtain simple analytic expressions for molecular rotation, Lemeshko solved the angulon problem in two “regimes”. One regime, mainly applicable to heavy molecules such as those containing atoms of sulphur, involves molecules with significant coupling to the helium (a high potential energy) but with little kinetic energy. Conversely, the other regime, relevant to lighter molecules such as water, entails greater amounts of kinetic energy but weak coupling. Although not all the predictions within the strong-coupling regime ended up within the experimental uncertainty, Lemeshko considers that for most heavy molecules he achieved “a good agreement with experiment”. He did even better in the weak-coupling regime, getting to within 2% of the experimental values for most light molecules. With some of the medium-sized molecules, however, he struggled, being unable to accurately predict their modified rotational constants within either the strong- or weak-coupling regimes. He says that an “intermediate-coupling” theory for angulons could in principle make accurate predictions here, but adds that rough estimates can be achieved in the meantime by splitting the difference between the strong- and weak-coupling predictions. Despite the problems, Lemeshko concludes that the results of his study “provide strong evidence” that molecules rotating within superfluid helium do indeed form angulons. “An angulon is not a real physical entity in the sense that a fundamental particle such as an electron is,” he says. “But it is as real as any other quasiparticle.”

Electron angulons

Lemeshko is now looking to apply his theory beyond molecules within liquid helium. For example, he is investigating whether angulons could be used to represent electrons exchanging their orbital angular momentum with a crystal lattice. Doing so, he says, might aid the development of ultrafast switching and advanced data storage, but he cautions that this research is “very preliminary”. The research is described in Physical Review Letters.

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Superfluid helium behaves like black holes

A frictionless form of helium appears to follow the same counterintuitive ‘area law’ as black holes

Black holes and superfluids make for strange bedfellows: One is famous for being so dense that light can’t escape, and the other is a bizarre liquid that flows without friction. But new computer simulations confirm that superfluid helium follows an unusual rule known from black holes — one with mysterious significance for physics. Scientists demonstrated that entropy, a measure of the information contained in a system, behaves in a counterintuitive way in superfluid helium. Entropy grows at the same rate as the surface area of the superfluid helium, instead of its volume — mimicking how the entropy of a black hole grows as it gobbles up matter and expands. It’s the first time the phenomenon has been demonstrated in simulations of a naturally occurring state of matter. Physicists reported the result March 14 at a meeting of the American Physical Society and March 13 in Nature Physics. “If you double the size of a box, you expect to be able to double the amount of information in that box,” says physicist Christopher Herdman of the University of Waterloo in Canada. That’s because the bigger a box, the more documents and other information can be stuffed inside. Progress toward a theory that unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, a still thorny problem, has convinced many physicists that black holes follow this “area law.” To demonstrate the law in a superfluid, Herdman and colleagues created a computer simulation of helium. The isotope they studied, helium-4, is the same stuff that keeps birthday balloons aloft, and it becomes a superfluid at temperatures below about 2 kelvins (–271° Celsius). In the simulation, the researchers kept track of the helium atoms’ entanglement — quantum linkages that intertwine particles. Within the superfluid, scientists selected an imaginary sphere of the material, and studied the entanglement between atoms inside the sphere and those outside of it. That entanglement gives rise to a type of entropy in the superfluid. As the researchers increased the size of that sphere, the entropy of entanglement increased as well. The rate of increase matched that of the sphere’s increase in surface area, which grows more slowly than its volume. The superfluid sphere is analogous to a black hole’s event horizon, the region of no return surrounding the black hole, beyond which light can’t escape. In black holes, particles on one side of the event horizon can be entangled with those on the other side, creating entanglement entropy in a similar way. “I think it’s a fascinating result,” says physicist Joe Serene of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. But, to advance from simulations to a measurement of entanglement entropy in real-life helium would likely be difficult. “It remains to be clear how much they can actually get out of real experimental systems,” Serene says. This area law has outsize importance in physics. The realization that a black hole’s entropy is proportional to its surface area led to the holographic principle, the idea that the information within a region of space might be completely reproduced on its surface (SN Online: 9/8/14). Scientists hope this concept could lead to a full theory of quantum gravity, uniting the physics of the very small with large-scale gravity. What’s more, some scientists now believe that the very structure of spacetime might be the result of quantum entanglement (SN: 5/31/14, p. 16), an idea that also grew out of the area law. “Entanglement entropy is a concept that is successful across many different areas of physics,” says physicist Markus Greiner of Harvard University. “The big problem is no one knows how to measure that in … real-world systems.”

Superfluid helium follows a bizarre rule of physics. The information in a system — entropy — increases with the surface area of the system not with the volume. In simulations of the superfluid, the entropy of atoms (blue) entangled with one another (green) increases with the surface area of the sphere of particles (gray).

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