Superfluid Helium In Three-Dimensional Counterflow Differs Strongly From Classical Flows: Anisotropy On Small Scales

Three-dimensional anisotropic turbulence in classical fluids tends towards isotropy and homogeneity with decreasing scales, allowing—eventually—the abstract model of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence to be relevant. We show here that the opposite is true for superfluid 4He turbulence in three-dimensional counterflow channel geometry. This flow becomes less isotropic upon decreasing scales, becoming eventually quasi-two-dimensional. The physical reason for this unusual phenomenon is elucidated and supported by theory and simulations.

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